Immunogenicity is the ability of a substance, such as a foreign or potentially dangerous protein, to provoke an antigen-specific immune response.
Antigens are substances, usually proteins, produced by cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms. Immunogenicity is important to enable the immune system to defend the body against disease-causing pathogens and other harmful substances.
However, immunogenicity can also result in unwanted immune responses. In the case of biologic therapies, the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) can neutralize activity, alter the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of biologic drugs, or cause hypersensitivity reactions and potentially life-threatening events. The addition of ImmTOR to biologic therapies has the potential to provide immediate benefit from the biologic while enabling patients to stay on therapy longer.
In the case of self-antigens, unwanted immune responses can lead to autoimmune disease; ImmTOR has the potential to restore natural tolerance to self-antigens.
ImmTORTM combines nanoparticle technology with rapamycin to generate antigen-specific immune tolerance.
ImmTORTM is designed to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance by targeting rapamycin to immune cells using nanoparticle technology, which has been clinically proven as an effective delivery system. When administered to a patient, ImmTOR nanoparticles are filtered out by lymph nodes, spleen and liver, where they are taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DC), a type of APC which can trigger immunogenic as well as tolerogenic responses from T cells. ImmTOR promotes the induction of tolerogenic DC which go on to activate antigen-specific regulatory T cells to suppress the immune response to the antigen.
Thought of in a more concise way, ImmTOR™ + Antigen = Tolerance.
Selecta is leveraging this approach to generate immune tolerance to therapeutic enzymes, viral vectors and auto-antigens that play a role in autoimmune disease.